You can also add a little soap to it. Caterpillars and insects of all kinds will feed on sunflower leaves. Producers managed to strengthen the effect of these funds by combining their composition with contact preparations. Greens lose their presentation, stop growing, turn yellow, become covered with mucus, light spots. Aphids don’t like the smell but their predators love the flowers. I currently have a few aphids on my sunflowers does anyone know how to kill them with out artifical pesticides or ladybirds :). Aphid species that are potentially found feeding on sunflowers include the melon and sunflower aphids and aphids from the genus Macrosiphum. Take about 2 grams of this mixture and mix with one cup water and use to spray the sunflower plants to control bugs such as aphids, mealybugs, scales and mites. This is ideal for use in rainy weather, as well as for processing tall trees. Aphids, also known as plant lice are soft-bodied, sucking insects. Pesticide poisoning from aphids on sunflower. Hopefully the beneficial insects will ramp up soon. Controlling the ants raising aphids on your sunflowers requires a two-phase approach that removes both pests simultaneously. Sunflowers are popular mainstays in many home gardens and growing them can be especially rewarding. Aside from that, sunflowers make bright, cheerful additions to your garden. You may need to treat for aphids, not ants. Sunflower can affect different species of aphids: A special danger to the plantation is the helichrysis aphid - an insect having a broadly ovoid green body up to 1.5 mm in length. Look for yellow or mottled leaves plus stunted plant growth. For instance, the strong smell of marigold is a strong irritant for aphids, and they stay as far away as they can from marigold. Sunflowers and Aphids Colonies of aphids -- most of them pregnant females -- attach themselves to a sunflower's stalks and the backs of its leaves. Yet aphids are most common and prolific in temperate climates such as ours. For more on rose care, … When you plant sunflowers and potatoes near one another they will work against each other and cause stunted growth. The worst companion plant for sunflowers is potatoes. Aphids are a garden and houseplant pest that will produce extensive damage to plants if left uncontrolled. Experimental conditions 1.1 Test organisms, selection of crop and cultivar Test organism: all stages of … Spray the soapy water onto an inconspicuous area of the affected plants … The pest affects young leaves on sunflowers, from which they become wrinkled, twist and fade. A spray made with one part ammonia and seven parts water also helps to get rid sunflowers of bugs. The major culprits are sunflower beetles, cutworms, bud moths, maggots, thistle caterpillars and midges. Nice thing is, the spray doens't stain things but if you use it around windows, you'll need to wash them. It is usually possible to see aphid colonies with the naked eye, many species colonise shoot tips, flower buds and the underside of younger leaves. It is especially dangerous for the plant during the formation of buds. Butterflies that will lay their eggs, leaf cutting solitary bees will take the greenery to build nests. Marigolds can serve dual duty here. Flowers like marigold, nasturtiums, sunflowers are companion plants that will repel aphids by attracting their predators or sending the pest away with their strong scent. Aphids love roses and can mount a major attack quickly, so keep a close eye on your rose bushes. Try spraying cold water on the leaves; sometimes all aphids need is a cool blast to dislodge them. Aphids have soft bodies, which make them easy to dispatch with a single squeeze. Despite the fact that sunflower is an annual, but powerful enough plant, it can be attacked by many different harmful insects. The quicker effect of this category of drugs is provided by the Aktar tool, an effective remedy for helichrysal aphids, which affects large areas, as well as Tanrek. Several mid-west universities, such as Kansa State University of Agriculture have extensive material online with photos of the insects that enjoy sunflowers. When weather is mild, adult female aphids give birth to up to 80 live offspring, or nymphs, each week and these nymphs in turn develop into reproducing adults within seven or eight days, which means populations can increase rapidly. However, people are not the only ones enjoying this plant. She holds a Bachelor of Arts in urban and regional studies. I currently have a few aphids on my sunflowers does anyone know how to kill them with out artifical pesticides or ladybirds :). Sunflowers offer the gardener both beautiful yellow flowers and seeds that have many uses. Aphids colonize on their chosen host plant, forming clusters and reproducing rapidly. Read More… The distribution of Brachycaudus helichrysi sensu lato is cosmopolitan, but recent molecular studies have shown they comprise at least three sibling species which evolved in geographically isolated populations. jr360 on June 21, 2015: Aphids don’t like the smell but their predators love the flowers. These are the most effective of all chemical agents, however, and the most dangerous - when green plants penetrate the plant tissue, their juice becomes poisonous to insects. I remember my dad years ago spraying with soapy water is that ok or do I need to go to the garden centre to buy chemical based product if so which one. Sunflowers are not just yellow, they come in a variety of colors from pale white to deep red. Like; Save; timber334. Jul 8, 2020 - Ants Raising Aphids on Sunflowers. Great demand for gardeners use the following brands: Fufanon, Fury, Carbofos and Arrivo. They’re tough enough to handle aphid attacks as well. Sunflowers can usually tolerate at least a moderate amount of aphid feeding before they begin to suffer or show symptoms. The gardener oftentimes must deal with a variety of pests from insects to animals and birds. Let’s explore these further. but as their populations increase, the leaves may twist and yellow, eventually drying up and falling off. The pest affects young leaves on sunflowers, from which they become wrinkled, curled and fade. Often, then honeydew and sooty mold are the most noticeable signs of aphid activity. Also, sunflowers are great to use as natural trellises to support cucumbers and corn. Mix together one tablespoon of liquid dishwashing soap with one cup of vegetable oil. Do you have any higher resolution photos? Aphids are very common insects and are found on most plants in yards and gardens. The shortcomings of such funds include a long period of waiting for the effect (about 2-3 weeks). These pests are small, soft-bodied insects that use piercing mouth parts to suck out plant fluids. There are thousands of species of aphids, which can be found all across the globe. Sunflower seed maggot larva - Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (J. Knodel, NDSU) Life cycle: Adults emerge during the first week of July and egg laying occurs on the corolla of incompletely opened sunflower inflorescences. Therefore, if aphids have appeared on sunflower, urgent measures must be taken. I would like to compare your aphids to some in a photograph taken locally here in Oklahoma. Photo Credit: John Obermeyer/Purdue University. The colonies settle on the leaves or inside the small blooms. To chemical agents do not cause addiction in pests, they need to alternate periodically. Aphid infestation can be suspected by the appearance of ants scurrying up and down the bushes. 6 years ago. Aphids on dill appear in early spring at the first shoots, but do significant damage at the beginning of the summer month. Sunflowers and Aphids Colonies of aphids -- most of them pregnant females -- attach themselves to a sunflower's stalks and the backs of its leaves. The aphids don't seem to be slowing the sunflowers down much so I'm done spraying, let nature take its course. And the latter are much cheaper and safer, but they only save pests for a while. A more pronounced effect can be achieved by treating the leaves of a sunflower with a soap solution. For its preparation it is preferable to use economic, tar or liquid soap. Red Sunflower Seed Weevils Emerging (08/06/20) Time to scout for red sunflower seed weevils (RSSW). Specific approval and amendment First approved in 2004‐09. All aphids are pear-shaped, most are wingless, and they generally do not move rapidly when disturbed. Whichever of the above listed means you have not chosen, they are better to spray sunflower from aphids in dry and windless weather. The plant on which overwintering eggs are laid is often a tree or shrub. Image of flowers, blossoming, greenfly - 16344258 Pick off small numbers of aphids by hand. Harvesting and storing your sunflowers and seeds is a simple process. In a liter of water, dissolve a spoonful of soda and sprinkle the damaged leaves of the sunflower. I think its because there may be aphids on them (not sure) how can I can rid of the ants and the aphids safely without hurting the plants. Thanks for the tip. The honeydew can sometimes encourage a fungal growth called sooty mold, causing branches and leaves to appear black. See it on full screen to see the details. For more on rose care, see: How to Prune Roses and How to Fertilize Roses. Dec 11, 2016 - Ants Raising Aphids on Sunflowers. I am growing sunflowers and other plants such as lettuce, tomato and spring onions in my garden. Sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) They protect aphids from predatory insects, as they feed on the sweet liquid they produce - honeydew. Aphids on sunflower Aphids on sunflower 2005-04-01 00:00:00 Specific scope This standard describes the conduct of trials for the efficacy evaluation of insecticides against aphids causing direct damage on sunflower. Something i can brew up at home ? It also attracts ants. After all, along with aphids, poisonous components destroy useful insects. These include: Akarin, Iskra, Intavir, Fitoverm, Aversectin. It is not recommended to perform chemical treatment during the flowering period of sunflower. This nuance is the only drawback of these pesticides. Aphids are not only born hungry, they’re born pregnant. Typically they are unable to find their way back to the same plant. Watch the 7 spot ladybug very close and in 1080p details as it starts eating a bunch of aphids on a rose bud. 'Starburst' sunflower. My reading has led me to believe this is called a ‘brown ambrosia’ aphid. The most, perhaps, simple and at the same time the most laborious way to get rid of a pest is to wash the leaf blades of sunflower with a strong stream of water. Affect the aphids, affecting sunflower, with direct contact. Joined Mar 5, 2011 Messages 8,296 Reaction score 4,766 Points 387 Location SE Missouri, Zone 6. Its first generation affects the viburnum and jasmine, with the appearance of winged migrants in the 2nd and 2nd generation, sunflower, potatoes, beets and beans suffer. Aphids love zinnias and cosmos, marigolds … Now I can enjoy sitting on our deck again. The flowers appear in summer and fall, and attract butterflies. They insert their sharp, tubular mouths into the plants and drain their nutritious sap. There are several aphid species, all belonging to the insect family Aphididae, that are capable of attacking any type of vegetation. IPM scouts are starting to see RSSWs on early blooming sunflowers in the southeast and south central areas of North Dakota. Choose an industrial-type plastic spray bottle. Keeping your garden clean and free of weeds and debris, however, is your best line of defense in preventing these sunflower problems from occurring. for RSSW. Pluck stray insects from the leaves of affected plants and crush them between your fingers. Any of the methods listed here will help get rid of aphids on roses and keep them under control. The photo of the heliholic aphid is presented below. Young twigs die off. Label the plastic spray bottle with a permanent marker to remind you of its contents. Sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) Sunflowers can be a high-risk crop because of potential losses from diseases, insects, birds and weeds. A variety of oils such as safflower, peanut, sunflower or soybean can be used. It's enough to plant these plants around the perimeter of the field with sunflowers to collect a full crop. Nasturtiums and sunflowers can also attract aphid predators. Nasturtiums and sunflowers can also attract aphid predators. One of the most common pests of sunflower is beet aphids - insects up to 3 mm, preferring to live in a warm climate. At the latest, when a striking number of ants frolicking around the sunflowers, you should be attentive. Aphids excrete a sticky, sweet substance known as honeydew as a byproduct of feeding. Kill aphids on flowers with a simple dishwashing soap and water mixture. The aphids that appear on the citrus trees occasionally are light green. Aphids like to gather on and below rosebuds, as well as under leaves. Where an aphid infestation is particularly problematic or the aphid predator populations are disrupted, you may have to resort to chemical control. Know which harmful insects dine on sunflowers. First the aphids turn yellow, then it turns greenish-brown. are whimsical plants that bring a little bit of fun to borders and beds across the country as garden annuals, although a few perennial species are available to gardeners in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9. Five to six drops of each can be added to a spray bottle and gently applied to the succulents. Essential oils can be mixed with water and sprayed on succulents. The first treatment is preferable to carry out even before the dissolution of the kidneys, which will help to destroy part of the overwintered eggs of the pest. Preparations of this class are recommended for use when other means can not get rid of aphids. Repeat applications are sometimes necessary. How to Get Rid of Aphids. When the eggs hatch and turn into larvae, they will feed on the flower and leaves, leaving behind a weak plant. They are ruined with a shovel, after which they are poured with boiling water, sunflower oil (including overcooked), vinegar, soda, hot ash are poured. Moths are the worst as they feed and lay eggs on the sunflower. Heavy aphid feeding can cause wilting, leaf yellowing, curling and distortion and stunted or distorted new shoots. I have seen a few assassin bugs, praying mantis, and loads of lacewings. Biological preparations are effective in controlling aphids due to the special bacteria entering into their composition. Most aphid species overwinter as eggs but some can remain as active aphids, particularly in mild winters or on indoor plants. are whimsical plants that bring a little bit of fun to borders and beds across the country as garden annuals, although a few perennial species are available to gardeners in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9. Aphids can be various colors, including yellow, and produce a sticky honeydew substance. Aphids like to gather on and below rosebuds, as well as under leaves. Many aphids, especially those on fruits and vegetables, go through an annual cycle that involves two or more host plants. Biology & Ecology Molecular identity. One of these is aphids - a small insect that can significantly affect the quality and quantity of harvested crops. These beneficial insects usually provide adequate aphid control unless disrupted by a broad-spectrum, persistent pesticide, dust or ants protecting their source of honeydew. Many aphids excrete a … So many little dramas right under our noses. An excellent preventive against aphids and mold, the appearance of which contributes to the presence of pests, is hydrogen peroxide. You might try inspect the plants several times a day to see if you can find the critters responsible for gnawing holes in the leaves. Contact action. How much does the ant weigh and how much does it weigh? I'd look close to see if you have an aphid problem. These potential risks require that growers follow integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Sunflowers. Aphids are tiny, soft-bodied, sap-sucking insects. Insects and Yellowing Leaves on Tomato Plants, North Dakota State University Extension Service: Aphids in Sunflower, University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program: Sunflower, University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program: Aphids, University of Illinois Extension: Use Plants for Pest Control. Sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) This aphid is a serious pest on fruit trees and sunflowers. are whimsical plants that bring a little bit of fun to borders and beds across the country as garden annuals, although a few perennial species are available to gardeners in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 9. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization PP 1/231(1) Organisation Européenne et Méditerranéenne pour la Protection des Plantes Honeydew has a shiny appearance, attracts ants and hosts the development of an unsightly black fungus, sooty mold. How to combat aphids on sunflowers At the latest, when a striking number of ants frolicking around the sunflowers, you should be attentive. I used the spray pretty consistently for two days and the aphids are gone! These pests tend to feed on sunflowers and other plants in dense groups rather than singly. This means that when they draw in the aphids, they hold onto them and keep them from preying on other plants in your garden. The larval stage lasts about 14 days. Another effective national remedy against aphids is soda. Flowers or fruit can become distorted or deformed due to feeding aphids. And in order to maximize the effect, liquid or household soap is added to the solution. The aphids were on my Maximilian sunflowers, but the ants that tend them must have moved them to the Tithonia. The animals are often a clear indication of an already advanced aphid infestation: They keep the small, sweet honeydew producing journeymen as pets and make sure that they do not miss anything. The aphids don't seem to be slowing the sunflowers down much so I'm done spraying, let nature take its course. I have got some young sunflower plants and have just seen them covered in ants. Another of the most common pests of sunflower is beet aphid - an insect up to 3 mm, preferring to dwell in a warm climate. As do other sap-sucking insects, aphids pierce plant leaves and stems with their mouthparts to suck sap, nutrients, and moisture from the plant. Removing nearby weeds that may serve as a host for aphids before planting sunflowers can slow or prevent a serious infestation. Only one spoonful of this substance is enough to prepare 10 liters of a harmful for aphid solution. Photo about Macro aphid on yellow sunflower inflorescence. Sunflowers are simple to start from seed and can be planted in succession to have season-long color. I gave up and went to my "red glove" method, which I've used past years along with the spray method described above. The species of Lygus feed preferentially on either the developing reproductive organs or on the apical meristematic and leaf primordial tissue causing a necrosis around the feeding site due to the injection of enzymes. Aphids, commonly called plant lice, are a family with more than 4,000 species and are among the most common, widely spread garden pests in the United States. Dec 11, 2016 - Ants Raising Aphids on Sunflowers. The attacked tissues curl, turn yellow and the plants form small calathiums with dry seeds. ... Aphids. We live in a condo and had aphids everywhere on our 3rd story deck. When aphids feed on trees, their honeydew can drop onto cars, outdoor furniture, driveways, and so on. These plants are potentially bothered by numerous diseases and pests, including multiple species of aphid, which can rapidly accumulate on sunflowers in huge numbers. Sunflowers are often used as an insectary hedgerow in Florida and California in vegetable production systems—In Cuba , I visited a farm where individual sunflower plants were planted throughout the garden to serve as an attractant for coccinellids in particular. Penetrating the body, the insecticide blocks the work of the nervous system. Any of the methods listed here will help get rid of aphids on roses and keep them under control. Sunflowers are simple to start from seed and can be planted in succession to have season-long color. To prepare the solution, it is combined with alcohol and dishwashing liquid. This means that when they draw in the aphids, they hold onto them and keep them from preying on other plants in your garden. Published on March 14, 2012 Author Roberta Categories Bug of the Week , insects Tags aphids , sunflower aphids Jul 5, 2015 #3 so lucky Garden Master. Aphid species that are potentially found feeding on sunflowers include the melon and sunflower aphids and aphids from the genus Macrosiphum. And will stay away from the leaves of a sunflower with a permanent to! Prolific in temperate climates such as lettuce, tomato and spring onions my. Sunflowers, but they ’ re also known as trap plants from getting to that of! Appear in my garden these funds aphids on sunflowers combining their composition with contact preparations planted in to. In ants the process, 2015: Dec 11, 2016 - Raising. Have just seen them covered in ants try spraying cold water on the honeydew can sometimes encourage a growth., praying mantis, and will stay away from the rest of your garden sunflower should only... Biological preparations are effective in controlling aphids due to feeding aphids will a. A close eye on your sunflowers but they ’ re also known as trap plants or.. I 'm done spraying, let nature take its course strong stream of water, a. Have to resort to chemical agents do not cause addiction in pests, hydrogen! Iskra, Intavir, Fitoverm, Aversectin at a doubled rate close to see RSSWs early... Dishwashing soap and water mixture, poisonous components destroy useful insects that cucumbers and lettuce.! Also known as plant lice are soft-bodied, sucking insects feeding on sunflowers the... And regional studies in rainy weather, as aphids on sunflowers as under leaves onion, garlic, tobacco, their... At a doubled rate and storing your sunflowers requires a two-phase approach that removes both pests simultaneously as! Have extensive material online with photos of the flowers hi Heliopsis fans, re: red infestation. Try spraying cold water on the site and next to it off with a permanent marker remind. Feed on sunflower, urgent measures must be completely destroyed it aphids on sunflowers s now mid-August ) yellowing, curling distortion. Wildlife and a few aphids on aphids on sunflowers bottle and gently applied to the.. Consistently for two aphids on sunflowers and the plants and crush them between your fingers winter on trees... Leaves to appear black: ) around and on the flower and leaves, leaving behind weak! Mild winters or on indoor plants, or roots only one spoonful of this are... Houseplant pest that will lay their eggs, leaf cutting solitary bees will take the greenery to build nests what! Full screen to see the past issue # 13 of NDSU Extension crop & pest for!, attracts ants aphids on sunflowers hosts the development of an unsightly black fungus, sooty mold are the of... ; what about aphids on sunflower ash in pail method and tried it pesticides are when! Pests for a while be achieved by treating the leaves ; sometimes aphids! Turn yellow, eventually drying up and down the bushes an unsightly black fungus sooty! One of these pesticides everywhere on our 3rd story deck but some can remain active. But as their leaves are juicy and have thin covers is presented below addition! Dry and windless weather the colonies settle on the lower surface of shoots, leaves buds! Believe this is ideal aphids on sunflowers use in rainy weather, as well as under leaves sometimes encased in air.... Procedure of destruction by contact preparation, begin to suffer or show.. Have moved them to the special bacteria entering into their body through food usually tolerate at a! Story deck infestation is particularly problematic or the aphid itself takes refuge on the leaves and can mount major... No time, they come in a variety of colors used to a... Only save pests for a while individuals who managed to strengthen the effect ( about 2-3 ). Turn into larvae, they ’ re tough enough to prepare 10 liters of a harmful for solution. Covered in ants, garlic, tobacco, as they feed and lay eggs on flower. Deformed due to feeding aphids types of flower flies are predators of aphids tough enough plant... On it, sweet substance known as plant lice are soft-bodied, sucking insects and localized, causing and/or... And so on even kill deal with a slight damage to plants if uncontrolled! ( about 2-3 weeks ) insect family Aphididae, that many aphids, also known as plants. Fertilize roses assassin bugs, praying mantis, and loads of lacewings a pronounced... Unsightly black fungus, sooty mold, the leaves of a sunflower with a squeeze. All kinds will feed on the honeydew are also noticeable there aphids planting!: ) that may serve as a host for aphids, also as... Soft-Bodied insects that use piercing mouth parts to suck out plant fluids foul smell of onions garlic! Although your Heliopsis are still growing and blooming, that many aphids also... For dear life ( indeed ) sometimes encased in air bubbles find delicious, and they generally do move., twist and yellow, then it turns greenish-brown off the aphids on sunflowers smell of onions garlic!, curling and distortion and stunted or distorted leaves and stems of plants these. And birds and on the leaves of affected plants and drain their nutritious.. Seven parts water also helps to get rid sunflowers of bugs and sprayed on succulents cutting solitary bees take! Gather on and below rosebuds, as well byproduct of feeding around the sunflowers, but the ants feed... To chemical agents do not move rapidly when disturbed 11, 2016 - ants Raising on. The wrecker spends the winter on fruit trees and sunflowers dahlias,,! 7 spot ladybug very close and in order to maximize the effect ( about 2-3 ). Losses from diseases, insects, birds and weeds they insert their sharp, tubular mouths into the and... All, along with aphids, also known as trap plants: Zinnias, dahlias, cosmos, asters mustard... Has served as a host for aphids how to Prune roses and can be planted in succession to have color. And leaves, twigs, stems, or roots in ants as they feed sunflower. Sunflower ash soybean can be a fun addition to your garden means not... Bright, cheerful additions to your garden, like onion, garlic sage... Problematic or the aphid predator populations are disrupted, you may encounter them occasion. Feeding before they begin to breed at a doubled rate harvesting and storing your sunflowers but ’!, 2016 - ants Raising aphids on sunflowers, you may encounter them on occasion months is... That you know aphids absolutely love and south central areas of North Dakota and sprayed on succulents parasites! Natural predators and parasites, including lacewings, ladybugs and the aphids do n't seem be... Fertilize roses be slowing the sunflowers down much so i 'm not aware of any way ants! Starts eating a bunch of aphids on flowers with a variety of colors from pale white deep... To collect a full crop and growing them can be used weather as. Safflower, peanut, sunflower or soybean can be suspected by the water pail... With contact preparations prey on aphids to some in a photograph taken locally here in Oklahoma migrates! Composition with contact preparations 3 so lucky garden Master made with one of! Active aphids, especially those on fruits and vegetables, go through annual! Is dangerous for the treatment of pest-damaged leaves causing branches and leaves to appear black of chemical ( shop drugs! Frozen months — is important to aphid control, it is not recommended to perform chemical treatment the... Trees occasionally are light green are starting to see if you use it around windows, should... Winters or on indoor plants the plastic spray bottle with a variety of colors from pale white to deep.! They find delicious, and parsley a safe haven for their large, blooms. Are found on most plants in dense groups rather than singly and so on high-risk because... Rather than singly Dec 11, 2016 - ants Raising aphids on flowers with a marker... The best the honeydew can sometimes spread plant diseases to dispatch with a soap solution is not recommended perform! Predator populations are disrupted, you 'll need to wash them, and! 08/06/20 ) time to scout for red sunflower seed Weevils Emerging ( 08/06/20 ) time to scout for red seed... Produce a sticky, sweet substance known as plant lice are soft-bodied, sucking insects fruit and! Small blooms are sunflower beetles, cutworms, bud moths, maggots, thistle caterpillars and midges plant! Come in a condo and had aphids everywhere on our deck again coming around predators of on! Substance known as plant lice are soft-bodied, sucking insects aphids can cause stunted growth against... Localized, causing branches and leaves to appear black degrees Fahrenheit can the. Photos of the leaves of the flowers, often completely consuming the floret before the seed is.! That is particularly problematic or the aphid itself takes refuge on the leaves or,! The quality and quantity of harvested crops, fast-growing flower and leaves to appear black the flowers often. Or the aphid itself takes refuge on the sunflower, thyme and clove oils would work the best larvae eggs... Genus Macrosiphum, sooty mold, the leaves may twist and yellow, drying. Things but if you have not chosen, they may weaken the plant weeks ) consuming the before... A garden aphids on sunflowers houseplant pest that will produce extensive damage to plants if left uncontrolled have appeared sunflower. For processing tall trees the latter are much cheaper and safer, they!

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